The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 11 feet and weighing up to 670 pounds. It is the third largest land carnivore behind only the polar bear and the brown bear.
- The Bengal tiger, also called the Indian tiger, is native to India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Bengal tigers are the most common subspecies, with populations in the wild estimated at less than 2,500 adult cats.
- The Indochinese tiger, also called Corbett's tiger, is found in Cambodia, China, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to government estimates of national tiger populations, the subspecies numbers around a total of 350 cats in the wild.
- The Malayan tiger is exclusively found in the southern part of the Malay Peninsula. According to official government figures, the population in the wild may number around 500 cats.
- The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, and is critically endangered. The wild population is estimated at between 400 and 500, seen chiefly in the island's national parks.
- The Siberian tiger, also known as the Amur tiger, inhabits the Amur-Ussuri region of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai in far eastern Siberia. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in the region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 cats.
- The South China tiger, also known as the Amoy or Xiamen tiger, is the most critically endangered subspecies of tiger, and is listed as one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world. None have been spooted in the wild and only 59 captive South China tigers are known, all within China, but these are known to be descended from only six animals. Thus, the genetic diversity required to maintain the subspecies may no longer exist.